Sputum Sample Types Of Essays

Types of Essays: End the Confusion

Effectively writing different types of essays has become critical to academic success. Essay writing is a common school assignment, a part of standardized tests, and a requirement on college applications. Often on tests, choosing the correct type of essay to write in response to a writing prompt is key to getting the question right. Clearly, students can’t afford to remain confused about types of essays.

There are over a dozen types of essays, so it’s easy to get confused. However, rest assured, the number is actually more manageable. Essentially there are four major types of essays, with the variations making up the remainder.

Four Major Types of Essays
Distinguishing between types of essays is simply a matter of determining the writer’s goal. Does the writer want to tell about a personal experience, describe something, explain an issue, or convince the reader to accept a certain viewpoint? The four major types of essays address these purposes:

1. Narrative Essays: Telling a Story
In a narrative essay, the writer tells a story about a real-life experience. While telling a story may sound easy to do, the narrative essay challenges students to think and write about themselves. When writing a narrative essay, writers should try to involve the reader by making the story as vivid as possible. The fact that narrative essays are usually written in the first person helps engage the reader. “I” sentences give readers a feeling of being part of the story. A well-crafted narrative essay will also build towards drawing a conclusion or making a personal statement.

2. Descriptive Essays: Painting a Picture
A cousin of the narrative essay, a descriptive essay paints a picture with words. A writer might describe a person, place, object, or even memory of special significance. However, this type of essay is not description for description’s sake. The descriptive essay strives to communicate a deeper meaning through the description. In a descriptive essay, the writer should show, not tell, through the use of colorful words and sensory details. The best descriptive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, with a result that is highly evocative.

3. Expository Essays: Just the Facts
The expository essay is an informative piece of writing that presents a balanced analysis of a topic. In an expository essay, the writer explains or defines a topic, using facts, statistics, and examples. Expository writing encompasses a wide range of essay variations, such as the comparison and contrast essay, the cause and effect essay, and the “how to” or process essay. Because expository essays are based on facts and not personal feelings, writers don’t reveal their emotions or write in the first person.

4. Persuasive Essays: Convince Me
While like an expository essay in its presentation of facts, the goal of the persuasive essay is to convince the reader to accept the writer’s point of view or recommendation. The writer must build a case using facts and logic, as well as examples, expert opinion, and sound reasoning. The writer should present all sides of the argument, but must be able to communicate clearly and without equivocation why a certain position is correct.

Learn How to Write Different Types of Essays

Time4Writing essay writing courses offer a highly effective way to learn how to write the types of essays required for school, standardized tests, and college applications. These online writing classes for elementary, middle school, and high school students, break down the writing process into manageable chunks, easily digested by young writers. Students steadily build writing skills and confidence with each online writing course, guided by one-on-one instruction with a dedicated, certified teacher.

In the elementary years, young writers get an introduction to essay writing through two courses designed to bring excitement and enjoyment to the writing process. Narrative Writing and Informative Writing take young writers on an animal-filled adventure to beginning essay writing. Our middle school online writing courses, Welcome to the Essay and Advanced Essay, teach students the fundamentals of writing well-constructed essays. The high school online writing class, Exciting Essay Writing, focuses in depth on the essay writing process with preparation for college as the goal. The online writing classes for kids also cover how to interpret essay writing prompts in testing situations. Read what parents are saying about their children’s writing progress in Time4Writing’s online writing courses.

Sputum is produced when a person's lungs are diseased or damaged. Sputum is not saliva but the thick mucus - sometimes called phlegm - which is coughed up from the lungs.

The body produces mucus to keep the thin, delicate tissues of the respiratory tract moist so that small particles of foreign matter that may pose a threat can be trapped and forced out.

Sometimes, such as when there is an infection in the lungs, an excess of mucus is produced. The body attempts to get rid of this excess by coughing it up as sputum.

Causes and colors of excess sputum

Sputum is a type of mucus that may be expelled when coughing.

There are many different reasons for the body to produce excess sputum. Below is a list of some of these causes, along with how the sputum may appear.


In smokers, mucus builds up in the lungs, causing a "smoker's cough." The sputum produced may be green, yellow, or bloody.


People with asthma have airways that are sensitive to allergens, environmental pollution, and respiratory infections. This sensitivity can lead to the airways becoming inflamed, as well as an increase in mucus production.

Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease caused by a defective gene. It leads to smaller airways becoming blocked by thick mucus, which causes breathing difficulties.

The thick mucus in cystic fibrosis becomes an ideal environment for bacteria to grow. Many people with cystic fibrosis develop chronic bacterial lung infections.

Respiratory tract infections (RTI)

Sputum that is a different color from saliva may be a sign of a lower RTI. With bacterial RTIs, sputum may also have a thick consistency and an unpleasant odor.

As a general rule, sputum is dark green in the early stages of an infection and gradually lightens as the infection improves. It is the presence of an enzyme called myeloperoxidase that gives the sputum its green color, during an infection.

Some infections may cause sputum to be yellow, gray, or rusty colored.

Common RTIs

The flu is a common type of RTI, which may cause sputum.


Flu, or influenza, may result in green phlegm. The main symptoms are:

Other common symptoms include general aches and pains, a chesty cough, and cold-like symptoms, such as a blocked or runny nose, sneezing, and a sore throat.

People should rest at home, drink plenty of water, and keep warm. Over-the-counter painkillers will help when someone has the flu, and most people will start to feel better within a week.

If started within 2 days of becoming ill, antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir can lessen the time someone is sick by 1-2 days. Taking antiviral drugs later in the infection can also be beneficial, particularly if someone is very ill or has a high risk of developing complications.


Bronchitis is an infection of the lung's main airways, the bronchi, which become inflamed and produce extra mucus. People with this condition may cough up yellow-grey or greenish sputum.

Bronchitis is a lung condition that can be acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis lasts about 3 weeks. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a daily cough that produces sputum and lasts for at least 3 months and occurs for two consecutive years. It is a symptom of other lung conditions, including emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and by drinking plenty of fluids.


A cough that produces thick yellow, green, brown or blood-stained sputum may be a sign of pneumonia, a bacterial infection that leads to the swelling of tissue in the lungs.

Other common symptoms include:

  • difficulty breathing
  • rapid heartbeat
  • fever
  • feeling generally unwell
  • sweating and shivering
  • loss of appetite

If someone thinks that they have pneumonia, they should see a doctor.

Tuberculosis (TB)

If someone has TB, they may cough up green or bloody phlegm. They will also experience symptoms that can include:

  • weight loss
  • night sweats
  • fever
  • tiredness
  • loss of appetite
  • swelling in the neck

TB is a serious condition but can be treated with a 6-month course of antibiotics.

Although TB is a bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs, it can impact on the upper body, glands, bones, and nervous system, as well.

When to see a doctor

Sputum may be an indication of an RTI, which in some cases will require medical attention.

Anyone who suspects they have TB should seek medical attention and get treatment.

If someone thinks that they may have pneumonia, they should also speak to a doctor. The condition can be difficult to diagnose as it shares symptoms with other common RTIs. Mild pneumonia can be treated at home with antibiotics, rest, and plenty of fluids.

Most other RTIs will resolve by themselves in time. Doctors recommend taking over-the-counter painkillers, drinking plenty of fluids, and resting.

However, there will be times when it is best to seek medical attention. These occasions include when someone has a severe cough that lasts for more than 3 weeks.

If someone has a temperature of over 100.4°F for more than 3 days, this may be a sign of pneumonia, so it is important to see a doctor.

If a person coughs up mucus flecked with blood, is breathing rapidly, develops chest pains, or becomes drowsy or confused, they should go to the doctor.

The same is true for anyone who has an underlying heart or lung condition or has experienced repeated episodes of bronchitis.

What is a sputum culture test?

If someone does visit a doctor, they might be asked to undergo a sputum culture test. This test is used to diagnose bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis. It can also be used to monitor how treatment for a particular condition is working.

The sputum culture test is usually done with a gram stain, which identifies the bacteria that are causing the infection. If the gram stain is unable to detect the bacteria causing the infection, specialized tests may also be run. These include an AFB smear and culture to find tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections, a fungal culture, or a Legionella culture.

A sputum sample will usually be collected first thing in the morning. Depending on the infection in question, up to three more samples may be taken on the following days.

When being sent for a sputum test, people can be asked to brush their teeth, rinse their mouth out with water, and avoid food for 1-2 hours beforehand.

To produce a sample from the lungs, a person is usually asked to cough deeply. If someone cannot cough up any sputum, they may be asked to inhale a sterile saline or glycerine solution to loosen up the phlegm in the lungs. Steam inhalation can also be used at times.

As well as a sputum culture test, a doctor may ask for someone to have a complete blood count to look for any other signs of illness.


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